Changes in metabolism after the fifties
As the years go by, the body’s needs for certain nutrients change. After the age of 50, the amount of stomach acid decreases and there is a weaker absorption of essential nutrients. This leads to a deficiency of essential nutrients that the body cannot produce but absorbs from food.
What are vitamins?
Vitamins are a group of thirteen essential nutrients that the human body cannot produce but absorbs from food. It is only possible to produce certain amounts of vitamin D by moderate exposure of the skin to the sun. That is why it is necessary to take deficient amounts of vitamins into the body with the help of supplements, dietary supplements. Vitamin A acts as a regulator of cell and tissue growth in the body, vitamin D regulates the metabolism of minerals in bones, teeth, cartilage, and other organs. Vitamins from the B complex act as coenzymes or their precursors, C and D act as antioxidants. Daily average doses for an adult are: vitamin A 0.8-1.5 mg; vitamin B1 1-1.2 mg; vitamin B2 1-1.2 mg; vitamin B5 4-10 mg; vitamin B6 1-1.2 mg; vitamin B12 3 mg; vitamin C 50-60 mg; vitamin D 5-10 mg; vitamin E 10-15 mg; vitamin H 30-100 mkg and vitamin K 60-70 mkg.
Consequences of vitamin deficiency
Lack of certain vitamins can cause serious disorders in the functioning of the organism. Vitamin A is important for immunity and eye and skin health and signs of deficiency are night blindness, loss of sense of smell, changes in the skin, hair, and nails. Signs of vitamin D deficiency are rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults ( same as rickets in children ), and decreased immunity. Vitamin B1 is important for memory, prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and depression, first signs are decreased immunity, dementia, muscle cramps, vitamin B2 is for cataract prevention, signs of deficiency are vertigo, stunted growth, dermatitis. Vitamins B6 and B9 keep the nervous and immune systems healthy and reduce the risk of cancer, B12 acts as a preventive against stroke and heart attack and prevents dementia, signs of deficiency are dementia, mucosal damage, convulsive twitching of the limbs. Vitamins C deficiency is a sign of anemia, decreased immunity, low hemoglobin, difficulty breathing on exertion. For vitamin E signs are erythrocyte damage, decreased pituitary and adrenal gland function, muscular dystrophy. Deficiency of vitamin K causes changes in blood clotting.
Daily needs for vitamins
Daily vitamin needs are different for men and women, the difference is in the daily amount and type of vitamins. Men need slightly higher daily amounts than women. The daily dose for women is vitamin A 700 IU and for men 900 IU, vitamin B1 1.1 mg women, and 1.2 mg men, vitamin B3 14 mg women and 18 mg men, vitamin B more than 2 mg for both gender, vitamin B12 more than 2.4 mcg for both gender, vitamin C women 75 mg – men 90 mg, vitamin D women 400 IU – men 600 IU, vitamin K for women 90 mcg, for men 120 mcg.
Excessive vitamin intake
Just as a lack of vitamins in the body can cause disturbances in the functioning of the body, so to an excessive intake and excessive amounts of vitamins can be harmful. Some studies have shown that increased intake and amount of vitamin B6 in women may be associated with a higher percentage of hip fractures. Excessive intake of vitamin D causes an increase of calcium in the blood, and the signs of toxicity are nausea, thirst, kidney stone, damage to the heart and blood vessels. Excessive intake of vitamin A is characterized by acute toxicity caused by taking large doses in a short period of time and symptoms are headache, fatigue, increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure, loss of coordination, itchy skin. The same symptoms are with chronic vitamin A toxicity, which occurs with taking a moderately high dose over a long period of time.
Avoid side effects while taking vitamins
To avoid possible harmful side effects, you should never take supplements on your own without consulting your doctor. The doctor will use various tests to determine which vitamins are deficient in the body and will determine the daily dose and type of supplement. This is very important because each person and their body have needs that are specific and different from other people. There will also be a specific dosage and combination of vitamins for each individual. The market is flooded with many supplements individually or in combination with other nutrients from various manufacturers so that everyone can find what they need. In addition to the intake of supplements in the body as a dietary supplement, it is extremely important that the diet is balanced. With a proper and balanced diet, vitamins are taken in nature, and in that form, the organism still makes the best use of them. That is why it is necessary to choose foods rich in vitamins and minerals such as cereals, fruits, vegetables, meat, and fish. Well-balanced vitamins and other essential nutrients alleviate or eliminate the problems of late years and slow down the body’s aging.